פרקי אבות

Pirkei Avot Chapter One

猶太智慧書【第一章】

Chapter of the Fathers 1

1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6.

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Since Sinai, the lessons of Pirkei Avot – Chapters (Ethics) of the Fathers – have been the foundation of Jewish character and personality, of morality and ethics. They are the road map toward the goals of happiness, fulfillment, and personal growth, as defined by the Torah. Pirkei Avot brings together how the Sages actually lived, the standards they set, and the ethical teachings that have guided and inspired Jews after century, to this very day. 

1  משֶׁה קִבֵּל תּוֹרָה מִסִּינַי, וּמְסָרָהּ לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לִזְקֵנִים, וּזְקֵנִים לִנְבִיאִים, וּנְבִיאִים מְסָרוּהָ לְאַנְשֵׁי כְנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. הֵם אָמְרוּ שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, הֱווּ מְתוּנִים בַּדִּין, וְהַעֲמִידוּ תַלְמִידִים הַרְבֵּה, וַעֲשׂוּ סְיָג לַתּוֹרָה:

Moshe kibel Torah miSinai, umesarah lihoshua', vihoshua lizkenim, uzekenim linvi'im, unevi'im mesaruha le'anshei cheneset hagedolah. Hem ameru sheloshah Devarim, hevu metunim badin, veha'amidu talmidim harbeh, va'asu seyag laTorah.

Moshe received the Torah from Sinai and transmitted it to Yehoshua, and Yehoshua to the Elders, and the Elders to the Prophets, and the Prophets transmitted it to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be deliberate in judgment, raise up many disciples and make a fence for the Torah.

托辣,摩西受自西乃,傳之於耶曷叔阿耶曷叔阿傳眾長老,眾長老傳眾先知,眾先知傳之於大議會眾成員

托辣,意即教導、訓誨,聖經頭五卷書在希伯來語中的總稱。摩西,又譯為梅瑟。西乃,又譯為西奈,地名,在今埃及領土內。耶曷叔阿,又譯為約書亞、若蘇厄。本文人名地名依照希伯來語發音譯出,故與通行譯名有所不同。  他們所言要事有三:慎於決斷;廣樹門生;設藩籬以護托辣。

2  שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הָיָה מִשְּׁיָרֵי כְנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, עַל שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים הָעוֹלָם עוֹמֵד, עַל הַתּוֹרָה וְעַל הָעֲבוֹדָה וְעַל גְּמִילוּת חֲסָדִים:

Shim'on Hatzadik hayah misheyarei cheneset hagedolah. Hu hayah omer, al sheloshah Devarim ha'olam omed, al haTorah ve'al ha'avodah ve'al gemilut chasadim.

Shimon the Righteous was from the remnants of the Great Assembly. He would say, "On three things the world stands: on the Torah, on the service and on acts of lovingkindness."

義人西默盎是最後一位大議會成員。他常說:“世界基石有三:托辣、事奉上主和躬行仁愛。”西默盎,又譯為西緬。上主所指代的那個希伯來詞(主的聖名)常被誤譯為耶和華。

3  אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אִישׁ סוֹכוֹ קִבֵּל מִשִּׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אַל תִּהְיוּ כַעֲבָדִים הַמְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָרַב עַל מְנָת לְקַבֵּל פְּרָס, אֶלָּא הֱווּ כַעֲבָדִים הַמְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָרַב שֶׁלֹּא עַל מְנָת לְקַבֵּל פְּרָס, וִיהִי מוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם עֲלֵיכֶם:

Antigenos ish socho kibel miShim'on HaTzadik. Hu hayah omer, al tihyu cha'avadim hamshameshin et harav al menat lekabel peras, ela hevu cha'avadim hamshameshin et harav shelo al menat lekabel peras, vihi mora shamayim aleichem.

Antigonos, man of Sokho, received from Shimon the Righteous. He would say, "Do not be as servants who are serving the master in order to receive a reward, rather be as servants who are serving the master not in order to receive a reward; and may the fear of Heaven be upon you."

索侯人安提哥奴斯受教於義人西默盎。他常說:“不要學那些因指望得到賞賜才為主人服務的奴僕,而要學那些不指望得到賞賜就為主人服務的奴僕,願你們心懷敬畏上天之情。”

4   יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹעֶזֶר אִישׁ צְרֵדָה וְיוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹחָנָן אִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹעֶזֶר אִישׁ צְרֵדָה אוֹמֵר, יְהִי בֵיתְךָ בֵית וַעַד לַחֲכָמִים, וֶהֱוֵי מִתְאַבֵּק בַּעֲפַר רַגְלֵיהֶם, וֶהֱוֵי שׁוֹתֶה בְצָמָא אֶת דִּבְרֵיהֶם:

Yosei ven Yo'ezer ish tzeredah veYosei ven Yochanan ish Yerushalayim kibelu mehem. Yosei ven Yo'ezer ish tzeredah omer, yehi veitecha veit va'ad lachachamim, vehevei mit'abek ba'afar ragleihem, vehevei shoteh vetzama et Divreihem.

Yosei Ben Yoezer, man of Tzredah, and Yosei Ben Yochanan, man of Yerushalayim, received from him. Yosei Ben Yo'ezer says, "May your house be a meeting house for Sages, become dirty in the dust of their feet and drink their words thirstily."

責勒達人約瑟·本·約厄則爾和耶路撒冷人約瑟·本·約哈南受教於他們。責勒達人約瑟·本·約厄則爾說:“讓你家成為賢哲們的聚會之所;要置身於他們腳邊的塵土之中,如饑似渴領會他們的言語。”

5   יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹחָנָן אִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אוֹמֵר, יְהִי בֵיתְךָ פָתוּחַ לִרְוָחָה, וְיִהְיוּ עֲנִיִּים בְּנֵי בֵיתֶךָ, וְאַל תַּרְבֶּה שִׂיחָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה. בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ אָמְרוּ, קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאָדָם מַרְבֶּה שִׂיחָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה, גּוֹרֵם רָעָה לְעַצְמוֹ, וּבוֹטֵל מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, וְסוֹפוֹ יוֹרֵשׁ גֵּיהִנֹּם:

Yosei ven Yochanan ish Yerushalayim omer, yehi veitecha fatuach lirvachah, veyihyu aniyim Benei veitecha, ve'al tarbeh sichah im ha'ishah. Be'ishto ameru, kal vachomer be'eshet chavero. Mikan ameru chachamim, kol zeman she'adam marbeh sichah im ha'ishah, gorem ra'ah le'atzmo, uvotel miDivrei Torah, vesofo yoresh Geihinom.

Yosei Ben Yochanan, man of Yerushalayim, says, "May your home be open wide, may the poor be members of your household and do not increase conversation with the woman." They so stated with his wife; all the more so with the wife of his friend. From this, the sages said, "Any time that a man increases conversation with the woman, he causes evil to himself and neglects the Words of Torah; and, in his end, he inherits Geihinom."

耶路撒冷人約瑟·本·約哈南說:“敞開你的家門,待窮人如自己的家人。不要沉溺在與女人的閒聊之中。”這裏說的還是自己的妻子,當然更不用說別人的妻子了。由此賢哲們說:“任何沉溺在與女人閒聊中的人,都是在自取其敗,荒廢托辣學業,並終將下地獄。”

6   יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה וְנִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ רַב, וּקְנֵה לְךָ חָבֵר, וֶהֱוֵי דָן אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם לְכַף זְכוּת:

Yehoshua Ben Perachyah veNita ha'Arbeli kibelu mehem. Yehoshua Ben Perachyah omer, aseh lecha rav, ukeneh lecha chaver, vehevei dan et kol ha'adam lechaf zechut.

Yehoshua Ben Perachyah and Nita of Arbeli received from them. Yehoshua Ben Perachyah says, "Make for yourself a mentor, acquire for yourself a friend and judge every person as meritorious."

耶曷叔阿·本·培辣赫雅和阿爾貝耳人尼泰受教於他們,耶曷叔阿·本·培辣赫雅說:“為自己延請一位良師,結識一位益友,善待每一個人。”

7   נִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי אוֹמֵר, הַרְחֵק מִשָּׁכֵן רָע, וְאַל תִּתְחַבֵּר לָרָשָׁע, וְאַל תִּתְיָאֵשׁ מִן הַפֻּרְעָנוּת:

Nita ha'Arbeli omer, harchek mishachen ra', ve'al titchaber larasha', ve'al titya'esh min hapur'anut.

Nita of Arbeli says: "Distance [yourself] from a bad neighbour, do not befriend an evildoer and do not despair of punishment."

阿爾貝耳人尼泰說:“疏遠惡鄰,勿交小人,切勿喪失對天譴終臨的信心。”

8   יְהוּדָה בֶן טַבַּאי וְשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוּדָה בֶן טַבַּאי אוֹמֵר, אַל תַּעַשׂ עַצְמְךָ כְעוֹרְכֵי הַדַּיָּנִין. וּכְשֶׁיִּהְיוּ בַעֲלֵי דִינִין עוֹמְדִים לְפָנֶיךָ, יִהְיוּ בְעֵינֶיךָ כִרְשָׁעִים. וּכְשֶׁנִּפְטָרִים מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, יִהְיוּ בְעֵינֶיךָ כְזַכָּאִין, כְּשֶׁקִּבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת הַדִּין:

Yehudah ven Tabai veShim'on Ben Shatach kibelu mehem. Yehudah ven Tabai omer, al ta'as atzmecha che'orechei hadayanin. Uchesheyihyu va'alei dinin omedim lefaneicha, yihyu ve'eineicha chirsha'im. Uchesheniftarim milefaneicha, yihyu ve'eineicha chezaka'in, keshekibelu aleihem et hadin.

Yehudah Ben Tabai and Shim'on Ben Shetach received from them. Yehudah Ben Tabai says, "Do not make yourself like the judges' advisers; and when the litigants are before you, they should be like evildoers in your eyes; and when they are excused from before you, they should be meritorious in your eyes - when they have accepted the judgment."

猶大·本·塔拜和西默盎·本·沙塔赫受教於他們。猶大·本·塔拜說:“不要充當辯護人。當事人站在你面前時,當視他們一如有罪;而一旦他們得到判決後離開,當視他們一如無罪。”

9   שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מַרְבֶּה לַחְקֹר אֶת הָעֵדִים, וֶהֱוֵי זָהִיר בִּדְבָרֶיךָ, שֶׁמָּא מִתּוֹכָם יִלְמְדוּ לְשַׁקֵּר:

Shim'on Ben Shatach omer, hevei marbeh lachkor et ha'edim, vehevei zahir bidvareicha, shema mitocham yilmedu leshaker.

Shim'on Ben Shatach says, "Examine the witnesses thoroughly, but be careful with your words, lest from them they learn to lie."

西默盎·本·沙塔赫說:“要徹底審查證人,注意自己的言辭,以防他們從中得到誘導而說謊。”

10   שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. שְׁמַעְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֱהֹב אֶת הַמְּלָאכָה, וּשְׂנָא אֶת הָרַבָּנוּת, וְאַל תִּתְוַדַּע לָרָשׁוּת:

Shema'yah ve'Avtalyon kibelu mehem. Shema'yah omer, ehov et hamelachah, usena et harabanut, ve'al titvada larashut.

Shema'yah and Avtalyon received from them. Shema'yah says, "Love work, hate lordship and do not become familiar with the government."

舍瑪雅和阿烏塔耳雍受教於他們。舍瑪雅說:“要樂於勞作,憎惡權貴,切勿親近統治當局。”

11   אַבְטַלְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, חֲכָמִים, הִזָּהֲרוּ בְדִבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁמָּא תָחוּבוּ חוֹבַת גָּלוּת וְתִגְלוּ לִמְקוֹם מַיִם הָרָעִים, וְיִשְׁתּוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֵיכֶם וְיָמוּתוּ, וְנִמְצָא שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם מִתְחַלֵּל:

Avtalyon omer, chachamim, hizaharu veDivreichem, shema tachuvu chovat galut vetiglu limkom mayim hara'im, veyishtu haTalmidim haba'im achareichem veyamutu, venimtza shem shamayim mitchalel.

Avtalyon says, "Sages, be careful with your words, lest you become obligated in an obligation of exile and are exiled to the place of evil waters, and the students who follow after you will drink, and thus the name of Heaven is profaned."

阿烏塔耳雍說:“賢哲們啊,當心你們的言辭吧。或許你們會因此招致驅逐,流放到惡水之地,而追隨你們而來的門徒將飲水而死,上天之名也受到玷污。”

12   הִלֵּל וְשַׁמַּאי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן, אוֹהֵב שָׁלוֹם וְרוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת וּמְקָרְבָן לַתּוֹרָה:

Hillel veShamai kibelu mehem. Hillel omer, hevei miTalmidav shel Aharon, ohev shalom verodef shalom, ohev et haberiyot umekarevan laTorah.

希肋耳和沙買受教於他們。希肋耳說:“要做阿哈龍的學生,熱愛和平,追求和平,要熱愛人類,並帶領他們親近托辣。”阿哈龍,又譯為亞倫、亞郎。

13   הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, נָגֵד שְׁמָא, אָבֵד שְׁמֵהּ. וּדְלֹא מוֹסִיף, יָסֵף. וּדְלֹא יָלֵיף, קְטָלָא חַיָּב. וּדְאִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּתָגָא, חָלֵף:

Hu hayah omer, naged shema, aved shemeh. Udelo mosif, yasef. Udelo yaleif, ketala chayav. Ude'ishtamesh betaga, chalef.

He would say, "Spread a name, lose his name. And one who does not increase [knowledge] ceases. And one who does not study is liable to die. And one who makes use of the crown [of learning] passes away."

 他常說:“名聲,欲揚反失;學問,不進則退;不讀經,毋寧死;而盜用冠冕者,終將滅亡。”

14   הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אִם אֵין אֲנִי לִי, מִי לִי. וּכְשֶׁאֲנִי לְעַצְמִי, מָה אֲנִי. וְאִם לֹא עַכְשָׁיו, אֵימָתָי:

Hu hayah omer, im ein ani li, mi li. Ucheshe'ani le'atzmi, mah ani. Ve'im lo achshav, eimatai.

He used to say: If I am not for me, who will be for me? And when I am for myself alone, what am I? And if not now, then when?

他常說:“我不為我,誰人為我?我只為我,我為何物?此時不為,更待何時?”

15   שַׁמַּאי אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה תוֹרָתְךָ קֶבַע. אֱמֹר מְעַט וַעֲשֵׂה הַרְבֵּה, וֶהֱוֵי מְקַבֵּל אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם בְּסֵבֶר פָּנִים יָפוֹת:

Shamai omer, aseh Toratecha keva. Emor me'at va'aseh harbeh, vehevei mekabel et kol ha'adam besever panim yafot.

Shamai says, "Make your Torah fixed, say little and do much, and receive every person with a pleasant countenance."

沙買說:“學習托辣,要持之以恆,要少言多行,待每個人都要滿面春風。”

16   רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ רַב, וְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק, וְאַל תַּרְבֶּה לְעַשֵּׂר אֹמָדוֹת:

Raban Gamli'el hayah omer, aseh lecha rav, vehistalek min hasafek, ve'al tarbeh le'aser omadot.

Raban Gamli'el says, "Make for yourself a mentor, remove yourself from doubt and do not frequently tithe by estimation."

辣班加默里耳說:“為你自己延請一位良師,從困惑中解脫出來。即使多給,也不要憑猜測交納什一奉獻。”辣班,可譯為大法官。

17   שִׁמְעוֹן בְּנוֹ אוֹמֵר, כָּל יָמַי גָּדַלְתִּי בֵין הַחֲכָמִים, וְלֹא מָצָאתִי לַגּוּף טוֹב אֶלָּא שְׁתִיקָה. וְלֹא הַמִּדְרָשׁ הוּא הָעִקָּר, אֶלָּא הַמַּעֲשֶׂה. וְכָל הַמַּרְבֶּה דְבָרִים, מֵבִיא חֵטְא:

Shim'on beno omer, kol yamai gadalti vein hachachamim, velo matzati laguf tov ela shetikah. Velo hamidrash hu ha'ikar, ela hama'aseh. Vechol hamarbeh Devarim, mevi chet.

Shimon, his son, says, "All my days I grew up among the Sages, and I did not find anything good for the body except silence. And the exposition [of Torah] is not what is essential, but the action. And whoever increases words brings sin."

其子西默盎說:“我一向生長於賢哲之中,從未見過有什麼比沉默更有利於身心。”“最根本的不是讀書而是實踐,任何只陶醉於言辭中的人都是在作孽。”

18   רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, עַל שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים הָעוֹלָם עוֹמֵד, עַל הַדִּין וְעַל הָאֱמֶת וְעַל הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה ח) אֱמֶת וּמִשְׁפַּט שָׁלוֹם שִׁפְטוּ בְּשַׁעֲרֵיכֶם:

Raban Shim'on Ben Gamli'el omer, al sheloshah Devarim ha'olam omed, al hadin ve'al ha'emet ve'al hashalom, shene'emar  emet umishpat shalom shiftu besha'areichem.

Raban Shim'on Ben Gamli'el says, "On three things the world stands: on judgment, on truth and on peace, as it is said (Zecharyah 8:16) 'Judge truth and the justice of peace in your gates.'"
辣班西默盎·本·加默里耳說:“世界存留所賴有三:正義真理和平。經上說:“在城門口應作公正與和平的裁判。”加默里耳,又譯為迦瑪列。哈納尼雅·本·阿卡市雅經師說:“神聖的受稱頌的主要德化以色列民,因此他將托辣與誡命豐盛地賜予他們。經上說:“上主為了自己的仁義,願意把托辣發揚光大。”


1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6.

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Journal commentary

Pirkei Avot is, in fact, part of the Mishnah; It  consists primarily of short statements most often attributed to rabbis who lived around the beginning of the Common Era.  It is customary to read and study  a section of Pirkei Avot every Shabbatot afternoon Minchah prayers, between the holidays of Passover and Shavuot, the seven weeks of the Omer counting.

事實上,父的道德是Mishnah口頭法的一部分; 它主要由簡短的語句組成,最常見於在*共同時代*開始時生活的摩西師教師。 習慣上,在逾越節和逾期節日之間的每一個安息日的下午,閱讀和學習一些父的道德倫理,這是七點鐘的奧馬爾計數。

* 共同時代意味著我們這個時代的一年(而不是很久以前的一年)也稱為基督教時代

Sages cited in Pikei Avot

The Sages quoted in Pirkei Avot may be divided into five general groupings. The first includes those who flourished prior to the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE:

Shimon HaTzaddik                        Hillel

Antigonos of Sokho                       Shammai

Yosei Ben Yo'ezer                         Rabban Gamliel I

Yose Ben Yochanan                      Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel

Yehoshua Ben Perahya                  Akavya Ben Mahalalel

Nittai the Arbelite                         Hanina

Yehuda Ben Tabbai                       Tzaddok

Shimon Ben Shatah                       Ben Bag-Bag

Shemaya                                     Ben Heh-Heh

Avtalyon

The Second group consists of Sages associated with the Yavneh School beginning 70 CE through the early second century CE:

Rabban Yohanan Ben Zakkai                    Nehunya Ben HaKanna

Eliezer Ben Hyrcanus                              Elazar of Bartota

Yehoshua Ben Hananya                          Hanina Ben Dosa

Yose HaKohen                                      Dosa Ben Hakinas

Shimon Ben Netanel                               Elazar the Moda'ite

Elazar Ben Arakh                                   Elazar Ben Hisma

Rabban Gamliel II                                  Levitas

Elazar Ben Azarya                                  Shmuel HaKatan

The Third group includes those who flourished in the early second century CE through the Bar Kokhba rebellion which was crushed in 135 CE:

Akiva                              Yose

Tarfon                            Yonatan

Hanina Ben Teradyon        Nehorai

Halafta Ben Dosa             Matya Ben Harash

Yishmael                        Elisha Ben Avuya

Shimon Ben Zoma            Yose Ben Kisma

Shimon Ben Azzai             Yohanan Ben Beroka

The fourth group consists of Sages who flourished during the period following the Bar Kokhba rebellion through the late second century CE:

Shimon Bar Yohai                        Yohanan HaSandlar

Meir                                          Elazar Ben Shammua

Hanina Ben Hakhinai                    Yehuda Ben Ilai

Yaakov                                      Yose Bar Yehuda

Dostai                                       Yishmael Ben Yohanan

Eliezer Ben Yaakov

The Fifth group consists of sages who flourished from the late second century CE through the early third century CE:

Yehuda HaNasi                           Elazar HaKappar

Rabban Gamliel Ben Yehuda         Yehuda Ben Tema

Yishmael Ben Yose                     Shimon Ben Menasya

Chinese Translation Large Print Credited to:

本文主要根據以下資料編譯而成:

阿伯特:猶太智慧書,阿丁·施坦澤茲詮釋,張平譯,中國社會科學出版社,北京;

Vedibarta Bam Pirkei Avot, by Rabbi Moshe Bogomilsky, Sichos In English, New York;

聖經,思高聖經學會譯釋出版,香港。