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Moshe's last parting words between 1st Shevat 2488 (vs 3) and 7 Adar 2488 (1273 BCE). This portion of scripture is read annually on the Shabbat preceding on each year of the 9th of Av.
1:1(i) Prophetic Words
Eleh ha Devarim asher diber Moshe el-kol-Yisrael beever haYarden bamidbar baArabah molsuf bein-Paran uvein-Tofel veLavan vaChatzerot veDi-Zahav:
These are the Words which Moshe spoke to all Yisrael on the far side of the Yarden in the wilderness, in the plain opposite Suf, between Paran, and Tophel, and Lavan, and Chazerot, and Di-zahav.
1:2 It is eleven days' journey from Horev to Kadesh-Barnea by way of Mount Se`ir.
1:3 And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh (Shevet) month, on the first day of the month, that Moshe (משׁה) spoke to the children of Yisrael according to all that ADONAI (יהוה) had given him in commandment to them;
1:4 After he had slain Sihon the king of the Emori, which dwelt in Heshbon, and `Og the king of Bashan, which dwelt at `Ashtarot in Edre'i:
1:5 Across the Yarden in the land Mo'av, Moshe took it upon himself to expound this Torah, saying:
1:6 יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ דִּבֶּ֥ר אֵלֵ֖ינוּ בְּחֹרֵ֣ב לֵאמֹ֑ר רַב־לָכֶ֥ם שֶׁ֖בֶת בָּהָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃ADONAI Eloheinu diber eleinu beChorev lemor; rav-lachem shevet bahar hazeh.ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheinu spoke to us in Horev, saying: "You have stayed long enough in this mountain:
1:7 Turn and take your journey, and go to the mountains of the Emori, to all the neighboring places in the Aravah (plain), in the mountains and in the sh'felah (lowland), in the Negev (South) and on the seacoast, to the land of the Kena'ani and to Levanon, as far as the great river, the River Euphrates (Perath).
Tribal Leaders Appointed
1:8 See (reeh), I have set the land before you: Go in and possess the land which ADONAI (יהוה) swore to avoteikhem, Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov, to give to them and to their seed after them.
1:9 "At that time I said to you, 'I am not able to bear you by myself.
1:10 ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheichem has multiplied you, and, behold, you are this day as the kokhavei (stars) of the heavens for multitude.
1:11 (ii) Blessings
(ADONAI (יהוה) Elohei avotekhem make you a thousand times so many more as you [are], and bless you, as he has promised you!)
1:12 How can I myself alone bear your trouble, and your massa (burden), and your strife?
1:13 Take you wise men, and Binah (understanding), and known among your shevet (tribes), and I will make them rulers over you.
1:14 And you answered me, and said:
The thing which you hast spoken [is] good [for us] to do.
1:15 So I took the heads of your tribes, wise and knowledgeable men, and made them heads over you, leaders of thousands, leaders of hundreds, leaders of fifties, leaders of tens, and officers for your tribes.
1:16 And I commanded shofteikhem (your judges) at that time, saying: "Hear the cases between your brethren, and shofet tzedek between every man and his brother, and the alien who is with him.
1:17 You shall not show partiality in mishpat (judgment); you shall hear the small and as well as the great; you shall not be afraid of any man's presence, for the mishpat (judgment) is Elohim (אלהים)'s: The case that is too hard for you, bring to me and I will hear it.
1:18 And I commanded you at that time all the things which you should do.
1:19 And when we departed from Horev, we went through all that great and terrible wilderness, which you saw by the way of the mountain of the Emori, as ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheinu commanded us; and we came to Kadesh Barnea.
1:20 And I said to you:
"You have come to the mountain of the Emori, which ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheinu is giving us.
1:21 See, ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheicha has set the land before you: go up and yaresh (possess) it, as ADONAI (יהוה) Elohim (אלהים) of your avot has spoken to you, do not fear or be discouraged.
1:22(iii) Hung up by sin
And all of you approached me and said:
We will send men before us, and they shall search us out the land, and bring us word again by what way we must go up, and into what cities we shall come.
1:23 And the saying pleased me well: and I took Shneym Asar (twelve) men of you, one of a shevet (tribe):
1:24 And they turned and went up into the mountain, and came to the valley of Eshkol, and searched it out.
1:25 And they took of the fruit of the land in their hands, and brought [it] down to us, and brought us word again, and said, [It is] a good land which ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheinu doth give us.
1:26 Notwithstanding you would not go up, but rebelled against the commandment of ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheichem:
1:27 And you murmured in your tents, and said, Because ADONAI (יהוה) hated us, he has brought us forth out of the land Mitzrayim, to deliver us into the hand of the Emori, to destroy us.
1:28 Where can we go up? Our brethren caused our heart to revolt, saying, “The people are great and tall and stronger than we; and the cities are great and fortified up to heaven; moreover, we saw the sons of Anakim there.” ’
1:29 Then I said to you, Dread not, neither be afraid of them.
1:30 ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheichem which goes before you, he shall fight for you, according to all that he did for you in Mitzrayim before your eyes;
1:31 And in the wilderness, where you saw how ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheicha carried you, as a man carries his son, in all the way that you went, until you came into this place.
1:32 Yet in this thing you did not believe ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheichem, .
1:33 who went in the way before you to search out a place for you to pitch your tents, to show you the way you should go, in the fire by night and in the cloud by day.
1:34 And ADONAI (יהוה) heard the voice of your devarim, and was wroth, and swore, saying,
1:35 Surely there shall not one of these men of this evil generation see that good land, which I swore to give to your avot,
1:36 Except Kalev Ben Yefunneh; he shall see it, and to him will I give the land that he has walked upon, and to his children, because he has followed ADONAI (יהוה) fully.
1:37 Also ADONAI (יהוה) was angry with me for your sakes, saying, you also shall not go in thither.
1:38 [But] Yehoshua Ben Nun, who stands before you, he will enter there. Encourage him, for he will cause Yisrael to inherit it.
1:39(iv) Small children to inherit
Moreover your little ones, which you said should be a prey, and your children, which in that day had no knowledge between tov (good) and rah (evil), they shall go in thither, and to them will I give it, and they shall yaresh (possess) it.
1:40 But [as for] you, turn you, and take your journey into the wilderness by the way of the Yam Suf.
1:41 Then you answered and said to me:
We have sinned against ADONAI (יהוה), we will go up and fight, according to all that ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheinu commanded us. And when you had girded on every man his weapons of war, you were ready to go up into the hill.
1:42 And ADONAI (יהוה) said to me:
"Say to them, Go not up, neither fight; for ANI (I) not among you; lest you be smitten before your enemies.
1:43 So I spoke to you; and you would not hear, but rebelled against the commandment of ADONAI (יהוה), and went presumptuously up into the hill.
1:44 And the Emori, which dwelt in that mountain, came out against you, and chased you, as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, [even] to Hormah.
1:45 And you returned and wept before ADONAI (יהוה); but ADONAI (יהוה) would not obey to your voice, nor give ear to you.
1:46 So you remain in Kadesh yamim rabbim (for many days), according to the days that you spent [there].
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The Uniqueness of Devarim / Mishneh Torah: = The Mishneh Torah (Hebrew: משנה תורה, "Repetition of the Torah") or as Explanation of the Torah, subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Chazaka (יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand,") is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam"), one of history's foremost rabbis. Devarim is unique in another way. In explaining the difference between the Admonitions of Vayikra chapter 26 and Devarim chapter 28. This is similar to the Greek Septuagint name Deuteronomos, which means “second law.” The English name Deuteronomy is derived from Deuteronomos.
The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930-4940), while Maimonides was living in Egypt, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus. Accordingly, later sources simply refer to the work as "Maimon", "Maimonides" or "RaMBaM", although Maimonides composed other works. Mishneh Torah consists of fourteen books, subdivided into sections, chapters, and paragraphs. It is the only Medieval-era work that details all of Jewish observance, including those laws that are only applicable when the Holy Temple is in existence, and remains an important work in Judaism.
Amorite (Sumerian Mar.tu, Akkadian Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew ’emōrî) refers to a Semitic people who first occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium B.C.E.. They were originally a nomadic people whose prowess as warriors gradually brought them into a powerful position in Mesopotamia. Their rise to power brought about significant changes in Mesopotamian civilization. From 2000-1600 B.C.E., they came to dominate the region, the most famous Amorite king being the great Hammurabi.
In the later second millennium B.C.E., the Amorites migrated or were pushed westward toward Canaan. There, the Israelites treated them as enemies and left several records of their defeat by Israelite heroes such as Joshua. The Amorites disappear from the historical record as a distinct population group around the sixth century B.C.E.
1. First Discourse 第一次论述: Review of Yisrael's History after the Exodus and its lessons - 1:1-4:49
2. Second Discourse 第二次论述: Rehearsal of the Sinatic Torah, with warnings and Exhortations (5:1-26:19)
3. Third Discourse 第三次论述 : Blessing and Curses for Obedience and Disobedience (27:1-28:68)
4. Fourth Discourse 第四次论述: The Brit renewal. Its wranings and Promised Blessings (29－30)
5。Conclusion 摩西的结论: Final Word and Acts of Moshe and His Death (31-34)
• Av 9, 1377 BC - The ten spies brought the bad report
leading to the wilderness wandering.
• 723 BC Samaria falls to Assyria Actual date not known Captivity begins 721 BC
• Av 9, 586 BC - Babylonians destroy Solomon’s temple.
• Av 9, 70 AD - Romans destroy 2nd temple.
• Av 9, 135 AD - The Bar Kochba revolt was crushed by Roman Emperor Hadrian. The city of Betar — the Jews’ last stand against the Romans — was captured and liquidated. Over 100,000 Jews were slaughtered.
• Av 9, 1290 AD - July 25, 1290 Jews forced out of England.
• Av 9, 1492 AD - August 11, 1492 Jews forced out of Spain.
• Av 9, 1914 AD - August 1, 1914 World War I Began (The immediate cause of the war was the June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb citizen of Austria-Hungary and member of the Black Hand. Wikipedia On August 1, 1914 Germany declared war on Russia)
• Av 9, 1942 AD - July 23, 1942 - Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw. The camp is fitted with two buildings containing 10 gas chambers, each holding 200 persons. Carbon monoxide gas is piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but Zyklon-B will later be substituted. Bodies are burned in open pits.
• Av 9, 2005 AD - Starting at midnight on August 14, 2005, the entry and presence of Israeli citizens in the areas to be evacuated was prohibited under paragraph 22A of the Implementation of the Disengagement Plan Law 2005. Disengagement from the Gaza Strip was completed on August 22, and from northern Samaria on August 23, 2005.
This is why we read Lamentations at this time.
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