Deuteronomy / 申命纪 Chapter 25

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25:1  "If there is a dispute between men, and they come to court, that the judges may judge them, and they justify the tzaddik and condemn the wicked,

25:2  then it shall be, if the wicked man deserves to be beaten, that the judge will cause him to lie down and be beaten in his presence, according to his guilt, with a certain number of blows.

25:3  Arba'im (forty) blows he may give him and no more, lest he should exceed this and beat him with many blows above these, and your brother be humiliated in your sight.

25:4  "You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain. (I Korinthos 9:9, 10; I Timotheos 5:17, 18)

An application of these regulation : Ruth 4:1-8

What is a Levirate Marriage? 娶寡嫂 / נישואים יבום

25:5  "If achim (brethren) dwell together, and one of them dies and has no son, the widow of the dead man shall not be married to a stranger outside the family; her husband's brother (Yabam יבם )shall go in to her, take her as his wife, and perform perform the levirate marriage (duty) of a husband's brother (Yabam יבם ) to her.

25:6  And it shall be that the firstborn son which she bears will succeed to the name of his dead achi (brother), that his name may not be blotted out of Yisra'el.

25:7  But if the man does not want to take his brother's wife, then let his brother's wife go up to the gate to the zekenim (elders), and say, 'My husband's brother (Yabam יבם ) refuses to raise up a name to his brother in Yisra'el; he will not perform the duty of my husband's brother.'

25:8  Then the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him. But if he stands firm and says, 'I do not want to take her,'

25:9  then his brother's wife shall come to him in the presence of the elders, remove his sandal from his foot, spit in his face, and answer and say, 'So shall it be done to the man who will not build up his brother's house.'

25:10  And his name shall be called in Yisra'el, 'The house of him who had his sandal removed.'

25:11  "If two men fight together, and the wife of one draws near to rescue her husband from the hand of the one attacking him, and puts out her hand and seizes him by the genitals,

25:12  then you shall cut off her hand; your eye shall not pity her.

25:13  "You shall not have in your bag differing weights, a heavy and a light.

25:14  You shall not have in your house differing measures, a large and a small.

25:15  You shall have a perfect and just weight, a perfect and just measure, that your days may be lengthened in the land which ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheicha is giving you.

25:16  For all who do such things, all who behave unrighteously, are an to'avat (abomination) to ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheicha.

Destroy Amalek

1st Portion | 2nd Portion | 3rd Portion | 4th Portion | 5th Portion | 6th Portion | 7th Portion | Complete Reading | Tehillim 32

25:17 (Maftir) "Zakar what Amalek did to you on the way as you were coming out of Mitzrayim,

25:18  how he met you on the way and attacked your rear ranks, all the stragglers at your rear, when you were tired and weary; and he did not fear Elohim (אלהים). (Shemot 17:14)

25:19  Therefore it shall be, when ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheicha has given you rest from your enemies all around, in the land which the ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheicha is giving you to possess as an inheritance, that you will blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. You shall not forget.

Haftarah Ki Tetzer: Yeshayahu 54:1-10

Brit Hadashah Mattityahu 5:31-32; 19:3-12; 22:23-32; Markos 10:2-12; 12:18-27; Loukas 20:27-38; Korinthos Alef 9:4-18; Galates 3:9-14; Timotheos Alef 5:17-18


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Analysis of chapter

Extent of punishment. (1-3)

The ox that treads the corn. (4)

Marriage of a brother's wife. (5-12)

Dishonest weights. (13-16)

War against Amalek. (17-19)

25:2-3. limitation on number of lashes. Ancient Near Eastern law (Middle Assyrian laws and Hammurabi) stipulate that both men and women be flogged for various crimes. The number of lashes ranges from twenty to sixty. In Deuteronomy, however, forty lashes serves as the upper limit. This limit may be based on either the symbolic value of forty or the degree of mutilation and personal humiliation permissible for an Israelite to bear wiyout being permanently excluded from social and religious activities.

The primary meanings are: Brother's widow , Consummate the marriage of a brother-in-law.

In Beresheet 38, Yehudah encourages his son to marry Tamar who was Onan's sister-in-law so they can raise a family to his brother who died. The importance is to keep the name in the family.

The brother can refuse to perform this duty. In that case, the widowed sister-in-law would take his shoe off his foot and spitting in his face .

25:5 כִּי־יֵשְׁבוּ אַחִים יַחְדָּו וּמֵת אַחַד מֵהֶם וּבֵן אֵין־לוֹ לֹא־תִהְיֶה אֵשֶׁת־הַמֵּת הַחוּצָה לְאִישׁ זָר יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ וּלְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וְיִבְּמָהּ

On Levirate Marriages (from Latin, levir, "husband's brother" Yabam יבם ).Levirate marriage is a type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow, and the widow is obliged to marry her deceased husband's brother. - 25:5, 25:6. If brothers lived together, and one of them died childless, the wife of the deceased was not to be married outside (i.e., away from the family) to a strange man (one not belonging to her kindred); her brother-in-law was to come to her and take her for his wife, and perform the duty of a brother-in-law to her. יַבֵּם, denom. from יָבָם, a brother-in-law, husband's brother, lit., to act the brother-in-law, i.e., perform the duty of a brother-in-law, which consisted in his marrying his deceased brother's widow, and begetting a son of children with her, the first-born of whom was “to stand upon the name of his deceased brother,” i.e., be placed in the family of the deceased, and be recognised as the heir of his property, that his name (the name of the man who had died childless) might not be wiped out or vanish out of Yisra'el.

Vayikra 20:21 prohibited a man from marrying his brother's wife; here he is commanded to marry her. The passage in Leviticus no doubt applied when the husband was still living, while Devarim refers to a time when the husband is dead, having left behind no male heir.

Conclusion: Justice and equity will bring down upon us the blessing of Elohim. Those who do unrighteously are an abomination to Adonay and miserable is the man who is distasteful to his Elohim.